Timor Leste announced in February 2024 its second generation 2024-2028 NAP to replace the country’s initial 2016-2020 plan. The latest NAP acknowledges the four-year delay, highlighting the country’s necessary and temporary prioritisation of public health as a result of the Covid-19 pandemic.

Objectives/Aims of the 2024-2028 NAP:

The NAP identities four main goals or pillars:

Pillar I, Participation:

1.    increasing representation of women in decision-making positions in the security and justice sectors,

2.    developing laws and policies about peace and security with participation of civil society groups with a focus on equal representation,

3.    promoting and recruiting women in national institutions for security and defence,

4.    providing opportunities for women to participate in community conflict resolution mechanisms as mediators and focal points.

Pillar II, Prevention:

1.    the goals of the prevention pillar are to integrate gender (including human rights and HIV/AIDS awareness) into training modules of the defense, security and justice sectors,

2.    include a gender perspective in conflict prevention mechanisms,

3.    promote a culture of peaceful conflict resolution,

4.    ensure laws regarding conflict resolution are gender sensitive,

5.    use the media to strengthen public awareness of gender-sensitive conflict prevention.

Pillar III, Protection:

1.    increase the gender-sensitivity of the formal justice system,

2.    expand awareness and access to reproductive and mental health services in the municipalities.

Pillar IV, Peacebuilding:

1.    ensure that women have access to natural resources and economic opportunity,

2.    to promote their role in peace-building at a community level,

3.    to ensure justice and recognition for former women combatants and veterans.


Both the 2016-2020 and 2024-2028 Timor-Leste NAPs are very thorough and attentive to contributions that women have already made to their peace-building process. Aware of Timor-Leste’s own conflict history, the NAP is effective at empowering women through promotion of non-violent conflict resolution mechanisms without gender-essentializing or assuming that women are naturally more peaceful. Importantly, the second generation NAP “recognise[s] female former combatants and veterans for their contributions to peace-building”. The NAP further highlights the need for improved services, pensions and access to justice available to these women.

Civil society involvement in development of the NAP:

The latest NAP was drawn up not only after consulting various government ministries, but also after consulting a number of civil society groups and after a period of reflection on the success of the initial 2016-2020 NAP. Specific recommendations that emerged from this process and that were subsequently included in the 2024-2028 NAP include: gender mainstreaming in all areas of government, annual meetings with stakeholders and civil society to assess NAP progress, increase capacity and raise awareness of UNSCR 1325, regularly disseminate information of the WPS agenda, improve budgetary allocations, improve handover mechanisms to prevent the loss of data and progress reports, improve cooperation with women’s organisations at national and local levels, better empower women economically by creating job opportunities and facilitating skills development, expedite law reforms, and promote gender sensitisation training.

UN Peacekeeping Statistics:

As of November 2023, Timor-Leste was contributing two experts to UN peacekeeping missions, both male.

Women’s role in peacekeeping:

The NAP highlights the need for training about the protection of civilians, including the rights and needs of women in peacekeeping operations and peacebuilding, as well as awareness raising about HIV/ AIDS for peacekeeping forces prior to deployment. The NAP also identifies that the Annual Report is required to track the progress of the use of budget for trainings, mediations seminars, peacekeeping workshops, and gender sensitisation curriculums.


Timor-Leste-NAP-2016-2020.pdf (lse.ac.uk)


Missions Detailed By Country (November 2023) – Contribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN Missions by Country and Personnel Type

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