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Basini, H. S. A. "Gender Mainstreaming Unraveled: The Case of DDRR in Liberia." International Interactions 39(4): 535-557.
In the past women have been excluded from peace initiatives. However, with the advent of UNSCR 1325 (2000) women's agency in the process has been heightened through a new framework for involvement. UNSCR 1325 is a policy document that acknowledges the link between women, peace, and security and uses gender mainstreaming as a mechanism to implement its objectives. Yet in spite of its policy advancements, over a decade later women still do not participate equally in peace and security initiatives that impact on the sustainability of peace. This article aims to explore the context of this framework through considerations of the gender mainstreaming provision in the disarmament, demobilization, rehabilitation, and reintegration (DDRR) process in Liberia. Using interviews with women associated with fighting forces (WAFFs)/ex-combatants the article argues that although there was a specific targeted focus showing some gender responsive design and coordination, WAFFs?/ex-combatants? unique needs, especially those of a social and psychological nature, were poorly addressed. In addition, the commentary shows that the focus did not attend to structural inequality issues such as sexual and gender based violence (SGBV).
Baylis, J., J. J. Wirtz, et al., Eds. (2013). Strategy in the Contemporary World: an introduction to Strategic Studies. Oxford, Oxford University Press.
Bellamy, A., J and P. Williams, D, Eds. (2013). Providing Peacekeepers: The politics, challenges and future of United Nations Peacekeeping Contributions, Oxford University Press.
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Blanchard, E. M. (2003). "Gender, international relations, and the development of feminist security theory." Signs 28(4): 1289-1312.
Boyd, R., Ed. (2014). The Search for Lasting Peace: Critical Perspectives on Gender-responsive Human Security. Farnham, Surrey, Ashgate Publishing.
Brown, J. (1997). Equal opportunities and the police in England and Wales: Past, present and future possibilities. Policing Futures, Springer: 20-50.
Caglar, G., E. Prugl, et al., Eds. (2013). Feminist Strategies in International Governance. Global Institutions Series. London and New York, Routledge.
Caprioli, M. and P. F. Trumbore (2003). "Identifying 'Rogue' States and Testing their Interstate Conflict Behavior." European Journal of International Relations 9(1/7): 377-406.
This research adds to a growing body of scholarship in International Relations regarding behavior of the states involved in conflict, which demonstrates that states with higher levels of inequality, repression and violence exhibit higher levels of violence during international disputes and during international crises. This argument is most fully developed within feminist scholarship.” (Abstract)
Carlton-Ford, S. and M. G. Ender, Eds. (2011). The Routledge Handbook of War and Society: Iraq and Afghanistan. Abingdon, Routledge.
Carreiras, H. (2006). Gender and the Military: Women in the Armed Forces of Western Democracies. London and New York, Routledge.
Chenoweth, E. and A. Lawrence, Eds. (2010). Rethinking Violence: States and Non-State Actors in Conflict. The Belfer Center Studies in International Security, MIT Press.
Cock, J. (1987). "Keeping the fires burning: Militarisation and the politics of gender in South Africa."
Cock, J. (1991). Colonels and Cadres: War and Gender in South Africa, Oxford University Press.
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Cockburn, C. and D. Zarkov (2002). The postwar moment: militaries, masculinities and international peacekeeping: Bosnia and the Netherlands, London: Lawrence & Wishart.
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Coln, C., Ed. (2013). Women and Wars, Polity Press.
Coulter, C., M. Persson, et al. (2008). Young Female Fighters in African Wars: Conflict and its Consequences. Uppsala, Sweden, The Nordic Africa Institute.
Dansby, R. R., J. B. Stewart, et al. (2001). Managing diversity in the military. Research perspectives from the Defence Equal Opportunity Management Institute. New Brunswick, NJ, Transaction Publishers.
de Jonge Oudraat, C. (2013). "UNSCR 1325 - Conundrums and Opportunities." International Interactions 39(4): 612-619.
de Jonge Oudraat, C., H. Hernes, et al. (2011). Women and war: Power and protection in the 21st century, US Institute of Peace Press.
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Demmers, J. (2012). Theories of Violent Conflict: an Introduction. London and New York, Routledge.
Dixon, P., Ed. (2012). The British Approach to Counterinsurgency: From Malaya and Northern Ireland to Iraq and Afghanistan, Palgrave MacMillan.
Duncanson, C. (2013). Can Soldiers Ever Be Used to Achieve Peace? Feminists Debate Military Intervention. Forces for Good?, Springer: 18-51.
Can soldiers ever be used to achieve peace? Military operations aimed at achieving peace and security in areas of conflict are claimed to ‘make a vital contribution to reducing the frequency and lethality of war in our world’ (Bellamy and Williams 2010: 1). In the short term, they can save lives (Power 2002b: 73; also see Power 2002a; Fortna 2008). In the long term, particularly if they combine the right balance of enforcement measures and the winning of the trust of the local population, they are claimed to make a significant contribution to sustainable, stable peace (Elliot and Cheeseman 2004; Woodhouse and Ramsbotham 2005; Fortna 2008; Beebe and Kaldor 2010; Bellamy and Williams 2010: 3).
Duncanson, C. (2016). "Gender Integration in NATO Military Forces: Cross National Analysis." Gender & Development 23(1): 179-181.
Duncanson, C. and R. Woodward (2016). "Regendering the military: Theorizing women's military participation." Security Dialogue: 0967010615614137.
Egnell, R. (2014). Gender, military effectiveness and organisational change; the Swedish model, Palgrave MacMillan.
Eisenstein, Z. (2007). Sexual Decoys: Gender, Race and War in Imperial Democracy. London, Zed Books.
Ellerby, K. (2013). "(En)gendered Security? The Complexities of Women's Inclusion in Peace Processes." International Interactions 39(4): 435-460.
As peacebuilding discourses increasingly stress the importance of including women, to what degree have security-related practices taken heed? It has been over 10 years since the United Nations Security Council passed Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace, and Security, yet it remains a ?confused and confusing? tool for scholars and practitioners in assessing women's inclusion in peacebuilding. This article adds to our understanding on women and peacebuilding by engaging 1325 as an operationalizable concept and then applying it to peace agreements to understand how women's security is addressed as part of formal peace processes. Given previous difficulties in operationalizing 1325?s mandate, this article engages it as a three-level concept useful for studying the ways in which women are ?brought into? security, called (en)gendered security. Using this concept of (en)gendered security, I assess intrastate peace agreements between 1991 and 2010 to elucidate where and how women are included in peace processes. This article illustrates the potential of a systematized and practical approach to security embodied in 1325 and a preliminary discussion of what accounts for better approaches to (en)gendered security during peacebuilding.
Enloe, C. (2000). Maneouvres: the international politics of militarising women's lives, Univ of California Press.
Enloe, C. (2007). Globalization and Militarism: Feminists Make the Link. Lanham MD, Rowman and Littlefield.
Fry, D. S. (2007). Beyond War: The Human Potential for Peace, Oxford University Press.
Gibbs, J. C., J. Ruiz, et al. (2015). "Sugar and spice and a badge and a gun A cross-national descriptive comparison of women's involvement in policing." International Journal of Police Science & Management 17(3): 155-163.
Women’s involvement in policing has been an area of study in the United States, but research in other countries has been sporadic. Comparative research, in particular, is scant in the literature on women’s involvement in policing. To address this gap in knowledge, this study explores differences between countries with high and low proportions of officers who are female. Qualitatively comparing these countries, several distinctions emerged between countries with a small percentage (< 5%) of female police (Albania, Bangladesh, India, Indonesia and Japan) and countries with a high percentage (> 18%) of female police (Estonia, Slovenia, Sweden, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom). Four of the five low percentage countries are located in Asia, with a higher population density, homicide rate and economic inequality (as measured by the Gini Index) than most of the countries with a high percentage of female officers. These low percentage countries also have yet to abolish capital punishment, whereas all high percentage countries have done so. In addition, two of the low percentage countries, but none of the high percentage countries, were involved in a civil war during the data collection period; two of the high percentage countries, but no low percentage countries, were involved in interstate war. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Gizelis, T.-I. and N. A. Pierre (2013). "Gender Equality and Postconflict Reconstruction: What Do We Need to Know in Order to Make Gender Mainstreaming Work?" International Interactions 39(4): 601-611.
Goetz, A. M. "From Communities to Global Security Institutions: Engaging Women in Building Peace and Security."
Goetz, A.-M. and C. Nyamu (2008). "Voice and Women's Empowerment: Mapping a Research Agenda." IDS Opendocs.
Goldstein, J. S. (2001). War and gender: how gender shapes the war system and vice versa, Cambridge University Press.
Heathcote, G. and D. Otto (2014). Rethinking peacekeeping, gender equality and collective security, Palgrave Macmillan.
Heinecken, L. (2013). "Insights on the Emerging Tensions of Including Women in the Military: Lessons from South Africa." Africa Peace and Conflict 6(1): 92-96.
Heinecken, L. (2014). "Outsourcing public security: The unforeseen consequences for the military profession." Armed Forces & Society 40(4): 625-646.
Since the end of the Cold War, there has been an exponential growth in the use of private military and security companies. Few have debated the long-term consequences outsourcing of security holds for the military profession. The first section of this article outlines the evolution of military outsourcing. From here the focus shifts to how outsourcing affects the armed forces’ ability to retain the monopoly over their “own” knowledge and skills base, and how it affects their autonomy, corporateness, and service ethic. The implications that this has for the armed forces and the military profession are deliberated. The conclusion is reached that extensive growth and use of private security have affected the intellectual and moral hegemony of the armed forces as providers of public security. The long-term implications of this in terms of the social structure and the identity of the military profession are not yet fully realized.
Heinecken, L. (2016). "Conceptualizing the Tensions Evoked by Gender Integration in the Military." Armed Forces & Society 0(0): 0095327X16670692.
The South African military has adopted an assertive affirmative action campaign to ensure that women are represented across all ranks and branches. This has brought about new tensions in terms of gender integration, related to issues of equal opportunities and meritocracy as well as the accommodation of gender difference and alternative values. The argument is made that the management of gender integration from a gender-neutral perspective cannot bring about gender equality, as it obliges women to conform to and assimilate masculine traits. This affects women’s ability to function as equals, especially where feminine traits are not valued, where militarized masculinities are privileged and where women are othered in ways that contribute to their subordination. Under such conditions, it is exceedingly difficult for women to bring about a more androgynous military culture espoused by gender mainstreaming initiatives and necessary for the type of missions military personnel are engaged in today.
Heinecken, L. and N. Van der Waag-Cowling (2009). "The politics of race and gender in the South African Armed Forces: Issues, challenges, lessons." Commonwealth & Comparative Politics 47(4): 517-538.
Hendricks, C. (2011). Gender and security in Africa: An overview. Uppsala, Nordiska Afrikainstitutet.
Hendricks, C. and L. Hutton (2008). Defence reform and gender, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.
Hendricks, C. and K. Valasek (2010). "Gender and security sector transformation- from theory to South African practice." SIPRI Yearbook, Geneva: DCAF.
Herbert, M. (1998). Camouflage isn't only for combat: Gender, Sexuality and Women in the Military. New York, New York University Press.
Holmes, R. (1985). Acts of War. New York, Free Press.
Hudson, H. (2005). "Doing security as though humans matter: a feminist perspective on gender and the politics of human security." Security Dialogue 36(2).
A feminist perspective can make security discourse more reflective of its own normative assumptions. In respect of an expanded human security concept, a feminist perspective highlights the dangers of masking differences under the rubric of the term ‘human’. A critical feminist perspective is geared towards addressing the politics of multiple overlapping identities. Since gender is intertwined with other identities such as race, class and nationality, the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism is overcome by connecting individual experiences in a particular location to wider regional and global structures and processes. An overview of a number of feminist and security-studies schools of thought reveals the extent of universalizing tendencies and gender silences within such discourses. The conceptual and political commensurability of the gender and security constructs is often overlooked. An emphasis on identity politics may thus help to clarify the ambivalence of human security as both a political project of emancipation and an analytical framework. A case is therefore made for more fluid context-based interpretations of gender in human security. In this regard it is posited that alternative feminist approaches, such as those rooted in the African context, could facilitate dialogue within and across supposedly irreconcilable standpoints.
Hudson, V., B. Ballif-Spanvill, et al. (2012). Sex and world peace, Columbia University Press.
INTERPOL, UN Women & UNODC (2020). Women in LawE nforcement in the ASEAN Region. https://asiapacific.unwomen.org/-/media/field%20office%20eseasia/docs/publications/2020/08/women%20in%20law%20enforcement%20in%20the%20asean%20region%20full.pdf?la=en&vs=332
Jackson, L. A. (2006). Women Police: Gender, Welfare and Surveillance in the Twentieth Century, Manchester University Press.
Jenkins, R. (2013). Peacebuilding: from concept to commission. London and New York, Routledge.
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Karim, S. and K. Beardsley (2013). "Female Peacekeepers and Gender Balancing: Token Gestures or Informed Policymaking?" International Interactions 39(4): 461-488.
Since the United Nations Security Council adopted Resolution 1325 (2000), which is referenced in most of the mandates for peacekeeping authorizations and renewals as of its adoption, UN peacekeeping forces have begun a process of gender balancing. While we have seen an increase in the numbers of female peacekeepers during the decade 2000?2010 and variation in the distribution patterns of female military personnel, we do not know if female military peacekeepers are deploying to areas that are safest or to areas with the greatest need for gender-balanced international involvement. Because the decision-making authority in the allocation of peacekeeping forces rests with the troop-contributing countries, which might not have bought into the gender balancing and mainstreaming initiatives mandated by the UN Security Council, we propose and find evidence that female military personnel tend to deploy to areas where there is least risk. They tend not to deploy where they may be most needed, where sexual violence and gender equity has been a major problem, and we find only a modest effect of having specific language in the mandates related to gender issues.
Katzenstein, M. F. and J. Reppy (1999). Beyond zero tolerance: discrimination in military culture, Rowman and Littlefield.
Kohl, C. (2015). "Diverging Expectations and Perceptions of Peacebuilding? Local Owners’ and External Actors’ Interactions in Guinea-Bissau's Security Sector Reforms." Journal of Intervention and Statebuilding 9(3: Special Issue: Service, Sex, and Security: Everyday Life in the Peacekeeping Economy).
For almost ten years, the West African country of Guinea-Bissau has been subject to security sector reform as part of international peacebuilding interventions. As in other peacebuilding and peacekeeping interventions elsewhere, ‘Global North’-borne perceptions, interpretations, images, and normative structures (‘peacebuilding mindsets’) have dominated the reform. They have been discursively reproduced in Guinea-Bissau's ‘peacebuilding economy’, encompassing spaces such as specific restaurants, hotels, recreation sites etc. Such ‘neutral’ venues or ‘uncommitted spaces’ have facilitated informal exchanges between discordant international organizations and actors, but contributed to the exclusion of local actors and voices. The article argues that the peacebuilding economy contributes both to the reproduction of ‘Global North’ patterns of perception and interpretation, and to the failure of peacebuilding initiatives. This is unsurprising considering that both locals and internationals engaged in the peacebuilding arena may benefit from job and rent opportunities in supposedly better designed follow-up projects.
Kronsell, A. Gender, Sex and the Postnational Defense: Militarism and Peacekeeping, Oxford University Press.
Kronsell, A. and E. Svedberg (2001). "The Duty to Protect: Gender in the Swedish practice of conscription." Cooperation and Conflict 36(3): 153-76.
Kronsell, A. and E. Svedberg, Eds. (2011). Making Gender, Making War: violence, military and peacekeeping practices. London and New York, Routledge.
Luckerath-Rovers, M. (2013). "Women on boards and firm performance." Journal of Management & Governance 17(2): 491-509.
MacKenzie, M. (2015). Beyond the Band of Brothers: the US Military and the Myth that Women can't fight
Malesevic, S. (2010). The Sociology of War and Violence, Cambridge University Press.
Mathers, J. (2013). Women and State Military Forces in Women. Women and Wars. C. Coln. Cambridge, UK, Polity Press: 124-145.
Mazurana, D., Ed. (2005). Gender, Conflict and Peacekeeping, Lanham, Maryland; Oxford: Rowman and Littlefield.
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Miller, B., M. Pournik, et al. (2014). Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation. Washington DC, Institute for Global and International Studies, George Washington University.
MOD (2014). Global Strategic Trends. M. o. Defence. London.
Morna, C. L., K. Rama, et al., Eds. (2013). SADC Gender Protocol 2013 Barometer. Johannesburg, Gender Links.
Nordas, R. and S. C. A. Rustad (2013). "Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers: Understanding Variation." International Interactions 39(4): 511-534.
While the literature on peacekeeping has mostly focused on whether peacekeeping actually keeps the peace, few studies have systematically addressed the question of what explains variations in unintended consequences of peacekeeping, such as sexual exploitation and abuse (SEA). This study presents the Sexual Exploitation and Abuse by Peacekeepers data, a new dataset covering the 36 international peacekeeping missions by the UN, NATO, ECOWAS, and the African Union, active in the years 1999-2010. Using this dataset, it also presents the first statistical study that explores the issue of what can account for variations in reported SEA across peacekeeping operations. The systematic analysis of this data indicates that SEA was more frequently reported in situations with lower levels of battle-related deaths, in larger operations, in more recent operations, the less developed the country hosting the mission, and in operations where the conflict involved high levels of sexual violence. Our discussion and conclusion highlights data restrictions and identifies key challenges for future research.
Odierno, G. R. T. (2015). "Leader Development and Talent Management." Military Review.
Olsson, L. and T.-I. Gizelis (2013). "An Introduction to UNSCR 1325." International Interactions 39(4): 425-434.
Olsson, L. and F. Moller (2013). "Data on Women's Participation in UN, EU, and OSCE Field Missions: Trends, Possibilities, and Problems." International Interactions 39(4): 587-600.
Pankhurst, D., Ed. (2008). Gendered Peace: Women's Struggles for Post-War Justice and Reconciliation, Routledge/UNRISD Research in Gender and Development.
Parpart, J. L. and M. Zalewski, Eds. (2008). Rethinking the Man Question: Sex, Gender and Violence in International Relations. London and New York, Zed Books.
Pletzer, J. L., R. Nikolova, et al. (2015). "Does Gender Matter? Female Representation on Corporate Boards and Firm Financial Performance-A Meta-Analysis." PloS one 10(6).
Reivich, K. J., M. E. Seligman, et al. (2011). "Master resilience training in the US Army." American Psychologist 66(1): 25.
Rhode, D. L. and A. K. Packel (2014). "Diversity on corporate boards: How much difference does difference make." Del. J. Corp. L. 39: 377.
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Runyan, A. S. and V. S. Peterson (2014). Global Gender Issues in the New Millennium. Boulder, Colorado, Westview Press.
Satterthwaite, M. L. and J. C. Huckerby, Eds. (2013). Gender, National Security, and Counter-Terrorism: Human Rights Perspectives. Abingdon, Routledge.
Schjolset, A. (2013). "Data on Women's Participation in NATO Forces and Operations." International Interactions 39(4): 575-587.
Seierstad, C. and T. Opsahl (2011). "For the few not the many? The effects of affirmative action on presence, prominence, and social capital of women directors in Norway." Scandinavian Journal of Management 27(1): 44-54.
Sheehan, M. (2005). International Security: an Analytical Survey. Colorado, Lynne Rienner Publications.
Shepherd, L. J., Ed. (2015). Gender Matters in Global Politics: a Feminist Introduction to International Relations: Second Edition. London and New York, Routledge.
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Sjoberg, L., Ed. (2010). Gender and International Security: Feminist Perspectives. Critical Security Studies Series. London and New York, Routledge.
Sjoberg, L. (2013). Gendering global conflict: toward a feminist theory of war, Columbia University Press.
Sjoberg, L. (2014). Gender, War, and Conflict, John Wiley & Sons.
Sjoberg, L. and C. Gentry (2007). Mother, Monsters, Whores: Women's Violence in Global Politics. London, Zed Books.
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Smith, M. and L. Heinecken (2014). "Factors influencing military recruitment in South Africa: the voices of Cape Town high school learners." African Security Review 23(2): 102-116.
This research sets out to establish how the youth in South Africa view military service, and what factors affect the ability of the South African National Defence Force (SANDF) to attract suitable recruits to staff its modern, technologically advanced military. Due to high levels of youth unemployment, South Africa has sufficient persons volunteering for military service. The problem lies with recruiting sufficient quality personnel with the right profile and abilities. To establish what affects enlistment, focus group discussions were conducted with learners from eight schools to determine what influences their career choices, what deters them from or attracts them to military service, their perception of the military profession, their knowledge of the military, and the influence of factors such as race and gender. The conclusion is reached that the SANDF is not considered an employer of choice due to poor service conditions, a decline in the prestige of the military, unfavourable aspects associated with military culture, a growing ‘knowledge gap’ and disconnect between the military and South African society, the estrangement of certain race groups, and the masculine nature of the military. These aspects need to be addressed if the SANDF wishes to attract learners with good academic credentials.
Stafford, R. J. and W. Mark Thornhill II (2012). "The Army Learning Model: Changing the Way Sustainers Train." Army Sustainment 44(2): 28.
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Summers, A. L. (2011). A theoretical analysis of leadership style preferences among Millennial Generation company-grade Army officers, University of Maryland University College.
This graduate dissertation will analyze the preferred leadership styles of Millennial generation company-grade Army officers, the commonly practiced leadership style within the United States Army, and whether or not a conflict in leadership style contributes to the premature departure of Millennial generation company-grade Army officers from the Army. The method of determining the preferred leadership style among Millennial generation Army officers will include a complete analysis of Millennial generation characteristics and workplace preferences as deduced by generational experts. The method of determining the commonly practiced leadership style within the United States Army will include an analysis of Army doctrine paired with scholarly determinations of organizational behavior and type. The determination of whether or not a conflicting leadership style is causing Millennial generation Army officers to prematurely depart the Army will be derived through an analysis of the Survey on Officer Careers and U.S. Army Human Resources Command longitudinal retention data. Results will then be considered in light of their applicability to possible follow-on research.
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Urwin, J. (2017). Man Up: surviving modern masculinity. London, Icon Books Ltd.
Valasek, K. (2008). "Gender and Democratic Security Governance." Public Oversight of the Security Sector: A Handbook for CSOs on Democratic Security Governance.
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Whitworth, S. (2004). Men, Militarism and UN Peacekeeping. Boulder, Colorado, Lynne Rienner.
Wibben, A. (2011). Feminist Security Studies: a narrative approach. Oslo, Routledge.
Wilen, N. and L. Heinecken (2016). Peacekeeping deployment abroad and the self-perceptions of the effect on career advancement, status and reintegration. International Peacekeeping, Routledge: 1-18.
ABSTRACT During the last three decades, international peace operations have multiplied. As a consequence, trainings and deployments for peace missions have become an essential part of the military’s work. Yet the importance of peace operations to the individual soldier’s career development has so far been relatively absent in academic writing. This article attempts to fill this gap by examining how soldiers perceive the effects of their peace operation deployments in terms of career opportunities and status upon reintegration in the home unit. Adopting an inductive approach, the authors analyse 50 interviews conducted with military personnel from the South African Defence Force (SANDF). The findings show mixed responses in terms of the effect of deployments on career development. In general senior staff value the experience acquired more highly than lower ranks who experience multiple deployments as having a negative effect on vertical career mobility. Nor do lower ranked personnel see any marked change in the (in) formal status upon reintegration back into their national armed force, while higher staff officers perceive an enhanced status especially where this is related to operational success. The article argues that peacekeeping deployment should be seen as a process, which has consequences for the individual soldier’s career long after homecoming, rather than as an independent event during a lifelong career.
Willett, S. (2010). "Introduction: Security Council Resolution 1325: assessing the impact on women, peace and security." International Peacekeeping 17(2): 142-158.
Williams, P. D. Security Studies: an introduction, Routledge.
Woodward, R. and C. Duncanson (2016). "Gendered divisions of military labour in the British armed forces." Defence Studies 16: 205-228.
Abstract This paper examines statistical data on the employment of women in the British armed forces. It reviews some of the issues shaping debates about women’s military employment, in order to establish the on-going significance of the topic. It looks at patterns of female military employment across the three services, and places discussion of this in the context of observations about gendered divisions of labour in the wider UK labour market. It examines data for the gendered divisions of labour within different corps, branches and occupational groups within each of the three armed services, and looks at gender patterns across ranks. It concludes by discussing the implications of these findings for both policy and conceptual work on women’s military participation.
Woodward, R. and T. Winter (2007). Sexing the Soldier: the politics of gender and the contemporary British Army. London, Routledge.
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