The first National Action Plan (NAP), entitled “From Acceptance to Inclusion”, was adopted by Peru in 2021. The document does not mention the period of implementation.

Objectives of Peru’s 2021 NAP:

The NAP focuses on four areas which align to UN Resolution 1325; each area comprises several objectives, together with activities to be undertaken and indicators for monitoring progress:

1 Prevention:

- Incorporate the gender perspective in the entities responsible for managing the maintenance of peace and security in the Defense Sector.

- Implement mechanisms for the dissemination and awareness of military and civilian personnel of the role of women in conflict prevention and peace processes and the gender perspective in Peace Operations.

- Compile lessons learned and statistical data related to events or actions that affect the gender perspective in peacebuilding and security processes through the personnel deployed in the Peacekeeping Missions.

2 Participation:

- Promote the participation of women at decision-making levels in conflict resolution and peace processes in accordance with the guidelines of Resolution 1325.

3 Protection:

- Incorporate and implement mechanisms to guarantee the protection of the human rights of women and girls in the entities in charge of managing Peace Operations.

- Establish conditions that allow promoting the United Nations policy regarding zero tolerance for sexual exploitation and abuse in Peace Operations.

4 Relief and Recovery:

- Establish cooperation mechanisms with other actors and/or countries to share and disseminate the experiences and lessons learned regarding the protection of the human rights of women and girls in Peace Operations for subsequent application on the ground.

- Promote that, in the countries where Peace Operations are carried out, women and girls have access to information regarding their human rights and about the help they can receive from Peace Operations.


With a recent history of internal conflict, Peru has been facing political instability and an ongoing crisis since the late 1990s. Violent protests and police repression resulted in multiple casualties and human rights violations, while security forces have been accused of violating international standards on the use of force.

Amnesty International’s 2022-2023 report on Peru notes the death of 6 human rights defenders in clashes with state authorities, over illegal logging and drug trafficking, and that women and girls, including female Venezuelan refugees, experience multiple forms of violence.

Civil society involvement in development of the NAP:

Multi-national actors such as Geneva Centre for Security Sector Governance and UN Women were involved in the process of developing this NAP. However it does not appear that civil society or women’s groups were involved.  Nor is civil society indicated as a participant in either implementation or monitoring of the NAP.

UN Peacekeeping statistics:

At September 2023 Peru was contributing 257 personnel to UN peacekeeping missions, of which 45 were female.  Most of these personnel were deployed by MINUSCA (UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in the Central African Republic).

Women in peacekeeping:

The NAP puts an emphasis on increasing women’s participation and training in Peru’s armed forces and UN Peacekeeping operations. It considers both women’s involvement and their needs in peace and security processes and institutions.  The NAP states it is necessary to amend existing regulatory frameworks, strengthen women’s participation in the decision-making process and contribute to tackling gender stereotypes.  It also recognises the need to change socio-cultural norms to promote the full inclusion of women in the armed forces.

References and sources:

Peru WPS NAP (original Spanish version): ANEXO RM 0293-21-DE.pdf.pdf (

Peru WPS NAP (English translation) is at:

Contribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN by Country, Mission, and Personnel Type (Sept 2023):

United Nations Peacekeeping (Sept 2023): Troop and police contributors | United Nations Peacekeeping

Amnesty International 2022-2023 Report on Human Rights in Peru:

Human rights in Peru Amnesty International

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