Security Culture & Monitoring

Rotary International Peace Fellowships

February 25, 2019

Each year, Rotary awards up to 100 fully funded fellowships for dedicated leaders from around the world to study at one of our peace centers.

Through academic training, practice, and global networking opportunities, the Rotary Peace Centers program develops the fellows into experienced and effective catalysts for peace. The fellowships cover tuition and fees, room and board, round-trip transportation, and all internship and field-study expenses.

In just over a decade, the Rotary Peace Centers have trained more than 1,200 fellows. Many of them now serve as leaders at international organizations or have started their own foundations.

Check out the Rotary Peace Map to see where our alumni are fostering peace around the world.

Our fellowships

Each year, The Rotary Foundation awards up to 50 fellowships for master’s degrees and 50 for certificate studies at premier universities.

  • Master’s degree programs: Accepted candidates study peace and development issues with research-informed teaching and a diverse student body. The program lasts 15 to 24 months and includes a 2-3 month field study, which participants design themselves.
  • Professional development certificate program: Experienced leaders gain practical tools for promoting peace and international development during an intensive, 3- month program, which includes 3 weeks of field study and peer learning opportunities with a diverse group.

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Global Peace Index 2016

September 13, 2017

This annual report ranks 163 countries around the world according to their peacefulness. It has three main themes: level of safety and security in society; the extent of domestic and international conflict, and the degree of militarisation. There is reference to gender equality as an aspect of positive peace, but no specific mention of women’s contribution to peace-building.

It is compiled by the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP) in consultation with global peace experts and think tanks, and with data gathered by the Economist Intelligence Unit.

The Concept of Political-Military Culture

September 13, 2017

Source: Thomas U Berger’s chapter, ‘Norms, Identity, and National Security’ in ‘Security Studies: A Reader’ edited by Hughes et al (2013)

The study of security studies is a vast and complex area, with the concept of security as a contested idea. We can refer to the political-military culture as a subset of the greater political culture within a country which influences how citizens of that society view national security, the military as an institution, and the use of force in international relations.

Cultures are not static and are open to change. When observing behaviour of individuals or groups of people from different cultural backgrounds, their reactions are likely to be different even when confronted with identical situations. We can say, for example that French or American policy-makers will respond differently to their German or Japanese counterparts with regard to the military and the use of force, if in similar geostrategic positions, simply because they come from cultural backgrounds with very different values and norms.

Gender and Private Security in Global Politics

September 13, 2017

Edited by Maya Eichler

Oxford Studies in Gender and International Relations

The first book dedicated to the study of private security in global politics through the lens of gender

Advances both private security scholarship and feminist security studies by establishing gender as a key analytical category for private security studies

Employs an intersectional analysis of gender and other categories of difference such as race and class

Contributes new empirical material to the study of private security by drawing on ethnographic research

The Private Security Monitor

September 13, 2017

The Sie Cheou-Kang Center for International Security and Diplomacy, within the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver, has a research project that promotes access to information concerning the world-wide use and regulation of private military and security services. The Private Security Monitor Project is managed in collaboration with the Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces (DCAF – see links). It has two components:

Firstly, the Web Portal which draws together all publicly-available regulations, reports, publications and data in the private security industry. Secondly, Private Security Mapping which aims to provide information on where private military and security companies are operating, what tasks they are performing and for whom.


Linked to this is a DCAF toolkit entitled: Private Military and Security Companies and Gender:

Click here for toolkit

The gender aspects and challenges of the privatization of security on a global scale are addressed. The authors argue that in order to ensure the effectiveness and long-term success of security sector reform involving private security companies and private military companies, it is indispensable to integrate gender aspects into all operations. This tool is part of the DCAF Gender and Security Sector Reform Toolkit series.


The following passage appears in Jacklyn Cock’s book entitled, ‘Colonels and Cadres: War and Gender in South Africa’ (1991:25):

‘A distinction should be made between the military as a social institution (a set of social relationships organised around war and taking the shape of an armed force); militarism as an ideology (the key component of which is an acceptance of organised violence as a legitimate solution to conflict); and militarization as a social process that involves a mobilization of resources for war. These phenomena are closely related. Militarization involves both the spread of militarism as an ideology, and an expansion of the power and influence of the military as a social institution.’

Jacklyn Cock wrote much of this book during the Apartheid years which was a particularly bloody and violent period in South Africa’s history. In the last ten to fifteen years, we have become familiar with the concept of peacekeeping as a means to prevent conflict. The above definitions reminds us that militarism is socially constructed and thus attitudes to such can be changed.

Articles & Publications

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United States Strategy on Women Peace and Security Underestimates Women's Agency

November 12, 2019

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'Women and Gender Perspectives in the Military' Book Launch at Georgetown University

November 12, 2019

Dr. Robert Egnell, Dr. Mayesha Alam, and Amb. Melanne Verveer Discuss Gender Perspectives and Militarized Masculinities

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Exclusive Interview with UNSCR 1325 at NATO HQ Celebrating her 19th Birthday

October 28, 2019

Possibly you have one living with you? A 19-year-old, behaving like an adolescent but expecting to be treated as an adult. Maybe you can remember being 19? Something of a grey area - the excitement of your 18th forgotten and the focus now on turning 20 which slightly mutes the pleasure of turning 19. And so it is, I suspect, for United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 (UNSCR 1325). This foundation Resolution who made the headlines by linking the disproportionate impact of conflict on women and girls and their absence from peace-talks as a security concern, is 19 years old on 30 Oct 2019. As always with the birth of a new-born there was excitement and clamour when 1325 was adopted. One can only imagine the scene in the Security Council that day; the cheering would have been deafening, maybe even some tears of joy in the public area – members of UNIFEM (the forerunner to UN Women), NGOs and Civil Society, who had worked tirelessly after the 1995 World Conference on Women hosted in Beijing, had finally got their Resolution. Possibly there was a different atmosphere in the Delegate’s area - bemused looks, scratching of bald heads, fixing of ties, raised eyebrows, general harrumphs and possible mutterings about what the Security Council had just brought into the world.

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