Indonesia’s first WPS NAP was published in 2014 to cover the period 2014-19. However, it was issued as a Presidential Decree (Perpres No.18) rather than as a WPS-NAP titled document. The Decree calls it “National Action Plan for the Protection and Empowerment of Women and Children during Social Conflicts” and refers to it as RAN P3A-KS.
In 2021 an update was launched as RAN P3A-KS II to cover 2020-2025. An English translated version of RAN P3AKS II is not available, but it is described in a video entitled “Strengthen Women, Peace and Security (WPS) Agenda in Indonesia through RAN P3AKS II.” It is also described in a UN Women Country Briefing entitled “Women Peace and Security in Indonesia.”
Objectives of Presidential Decree RAN P3AKS I (2014-2019) :
The Decree sets out the following overarching aim:
“RAN P3A-KS shall serve as a guideline for the ministries/institutions and local governments to provide protection to and empowerment of women and children during conflicts through systematic, coordinated, planned and sustained ….. actions."
It also states: “RAN P3A-KS is the implementation of the principles of peace and security for women and children ……. as well as the Government's commitment to protect, promote, and uphold human rights, especially for women and children ….. and give opportunity to women to participate in the peace process pursuant to the principles set out in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights…..”
RAN P3AKS 1 then goes on to set out the range of programmes that should be implemented under three pillars: prevention; mitigation; and the empowerment and participation of women and children.
- Prevention programmes are aimed at raising awareness and building capacity within government, religious fora, mass media, traditional institutions, and civil society in order to protect women and children from violence during conflicts.
- Mitigation programmes are aimed at improving the accessibility and quality of safe spaces for women and children affected by violence in places of conflict. These programmes include reproductive health, social rehabilitation, social reintegration, legal aid and assistance. They should also provide for women’s basic needs such as food, clothing, and shelter, as well as meet the specific needs of women (eg during menstruation and pregnancy) and children (eg vitamins, play facilities).
- Empowerment and participation programmes are aimed at creating “conditions that enable women's potential to develop, to do business and earn a living and not depend on others. Also, for women who are victims of conflicts or non-victims of conflicts, there should be training to enable them to participate in peace-building (eg skills of negotiation, mediation, advocacy, campaigning to stop conflicts, investigating and collecting data of victims of conflict) …, as well as involved in decision-making to protect women and children during conflicts.”
Indonesia experienced a period of instability related to the Aceh conflict (Aceh conflict), a war that saw grave violations of human rights abuses including sexual assault, rape, and violence against women. In response to this, the Decree recognises that in conflicts, women (and children) are the most vulnerable; it therefore focuses on how to protect them. The Decree also has an element of empowerment that is described as “efforts to strengthen human rights” and “intensify the participation of women and children in peacebuilding”.
The Decree provides a detailed plan for the co-ordination, monitoring, evaluation and reporting of implementation at national, provincial and district levels, together with indicators and a timeframe.
Civil Society involvement in development of the Decree/NAP:
Although not addressed in detail in the plan, civil society organisations will, to a limited extent, be involved in the monitoring of the progress of the Decree, through the establishment of working groups at the various levels of implementation.
UN Peacekeeping Statistics:
At September 2023 Indonesia contributed 2717 personnel to UN peacekeeping missions:
Most of Indonesia’s troops were deployed in UN’s Interim Force in Lebanon (UNFIL) and the UN’s Stabilisation Mission in DRC (MONUSCO).
At April 2023, Indonesia ranked eighth for its contribution to UN peacekeeping missions.
Women in Peacekeeping:
The NAP does not address the issue of peacekeeping, and makes no mention of women in peacekeeping, the police, or defense forces.
However, the above table shows Indonesian women were well represented among UN police, though less so among the military. The UN Country Briefing on WPS in Indonesia states that Indonesia has deployed 570+ women as peacekeepers since 1999 of which 158 were serving in UN missions in 2021, and that the number of female peacekeepers contributed by Indonesia had tripled from 59 in 2017.
References and sources:
Indonesia National Action Plan 2014-2019
Government of Indonesia (2021): Video explaining RAN P3AKS II (2020-2025): www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iw4mePVrkp8
UN Women Country Briefing on WPS in Indonesia (March 2023): WPS-Country-Brief_Indonesia_20230329.pdf (asean.org)
United Nations Peacekeeping (Sept 2023) https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/troop-and-police-contributors
Contribution of Uniformed Personnel to UN by Country, Mission, and Personnel Type (Sept 2023): 05-Missions Detailed By Country
Uniformed Personnel Contributing Countries by Ranking Experts on Mission, Formed Police Units, Individual Police, Staff Officer, and Troops (30/04/2023): 02-Contributions by Country (Ranking)
Indonesia (East Timor), 1975–2000: Case Outcome: COIN Loss, Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies, 2013, pp. 374-382 (9 pages), Indonesia (East Timor), 1975–2000 Case Outcome: COIN Loss from Paths to Victory: Detailed Insurgency Case Studies on JSTOR