This is Ghana's 2nd NAP (GHANAP 2).Ghana is committed to CEDAW, BPfA and UNSCR 1325 – all seeking to protect women and girls and plan to use their new NAP to further their own national gender frameworks and institutions.
The beginning of the NAP is transparent with the failure of GHANAP 1. GHANAP 2 recognises that GHANAP 1 was not fully implemented due to a lack of dedicated budget, competing priorities, a lack of women trained in WPS issues and minimal awareness publicly of GHANAP1. Additionally, GHANAP 2 recognises the ongoing pockets of violence experienced by Ghana, which negatively impacts the security of women.
Ghana is currently a signatory to CEDAW, BPfA and UNSCR 1325. Previous gender-based policies include the Domestic Violence Act 737 (2007), the National Gender Policy (2015), and GHANAP 1 (2012).
GHANAP 2 speaks in-depth to the current contextual situation faced by women in Ghana following GHANAP 1. Since GHANAP 1, the US Department of State found Ghana had failed to protect young women from human trafficking for three consecutive years. As a result, Ghana was placed on the 'Tier 2 Watch List', drawing attention to the government's failure to meet minimum standards of human tracking protection. Additionally, Ghana is continuously faced with prevalent issues of sexual abuse in schools, workplaces and communities, child marriages and female genital mutilation.Women in Ghana continue to be highly vulnerable to rape, armed robbery and attacks from nomadic headsman. As a result, GHANAP 2 reflects upon the challenging situation faced by women in Ghana and the urgent need to implement securitised policies nationally.
The Canadian Government chose The Ghana Armed Forces to partner on technical assistance and training in their Elsie Initiative for Women inPeace Operations, however, this is not mentioned in the NAP. It does however, briefly mention the financial and technical support of the Women, Peace and Security Institute created by the Kofi Annan International Peace and TrainingCentre (KAIPTC).
· Focus on Women's participation and representation in decision making and throughout peace processes.
· Improve the Human Rights of Women and Girls in conflict and peace. In particular, focusing on GBV, SEA and gender discrimination.
· Eliminate all forms of sexual-based violence perpetrated by peacekeepers during security operations by increasing the training and awareness surrounding WPS and human rights in pre-deployment training.
· Provide equal access to relief and recovery resources for women and girls, ensuring the needs of female victims of natural disasters are acknowledged.
· Increase women working in peace building activities by 30%
· The NAP recognises Ghana as the second-highest contributor to peacekeeping forces globally with a 12% contribution. However, there has been no female participation in domestic peacekeeping.
· Enhanced gender-sensitive training for PKO at all levels and across military institutions.
· Undertake Gender and Nonviolent peace building sensitisation at a community level
· Support the development of gender policy in all security institutions
· Create an annual award for CSOs and security institutions that adhere to the guidelines of UNSCR 1325.
· Develop comprehensive programmes and facilities for at least 30% of female participants of peacekeeping operations deployed domestically in Ghana.
· 360/2283 Ghanaian uniformed personnel to UN are female equating to 16%.
· Missions include: UNMISS, UNOWAS, UNSOM, UNSOS